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Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou

Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou
Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou (22 décembre 1930 - 13 juillet 1989) était un homme politique kurde et un dirigeant kurde. Ghassemlou a été secrétaire général du Parti démocratique du Kurdistan iranien (KDPI) de 1973 jusqu'à son assassinat en 1989 par des individus soupçonnés d'être des agents de la République islamique d'Iran.[2][3][4]
Première vie et éducation
Né à Rezaieh, en Azerbaïdjan occidental, en Iran, dans une riche famille féodale, son père était Mohammad Vesugh Ghassemlou, un nationaliste kurde propriétaire terrien Agha et Khan de la tribu kurde Shekak, né en 1875. Sa mère était Nana Jan Timsar, une chrétienne assyrienne. Son père était un conseiller du Shah d'Iran, qui lui a donné le titre de Wussuq-e Divan. Il a terminé ses premières études à Ourmia puis à Téhéran. Il a été témoin de l'ère de la République de Mahabad et est devenu membre co-fondateur de l'aile jeunesse du PDK-I à l'âge de 15 ans. Ghassemlou a déménagé en France pour poursuivre ses études à la Sorbonne. Il a rencontré sa femme Helen Krulich en Tchécoslovaquie. Ils ont eu deux filles ensemble, Mina (1953) et Hewa (1955).[5][6]
Ghassemlou parlait couramment 8 langues ; kurde, assyrien, persan, arabe, azerbaïdjanais, français, anglais, tchèque et russe. Il connaissait également l'allemand, le slovaque et le polonais.[7][8][9]

Carrière
Ghassemlou est retourné au Kurdistan en 1952 après avoir terminé ses études. Il a ensuite passé plusieurs années en tant que militant actif dans les domaines militaires kurdes. [citation nécessaire] En 1973, lors du troisième congrès du PDKI, il est élu au poste de secrétaire général du parti, poste auquel il est réélu. plusieurs fois jusqu'à son assassinat.
En 1979, son parti soutient la révolution qui se solde par la chute de Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. Khomeiny considérait leur dernière heure de participation à la révolution comme opportuniste. Les Kurdes appartenant au parti avaient envahi les complexes militaires dans les zones kurdes. Khomeiny a exigé que tous les groupes armés fassent partie d'une seule organisation révolutionnaire et a demandé que les soldats kurdes « rendent » leurs armes. Ghasemlou a exigé l'autonomie des Kurdes et a refusé de déposer les armes. Le parti a boycotté le référendum sur la nouvelle constitution. Suite à deux affrontements sanglants entre le peuple kurde et les forces loyales à Khomeiny, la lutte kurde s'est transformée en guerre. Peu de temps après le début de la rébellion armée kurde, l'ayatollah Khomeiny a déclaré une « guerre sainte » contre le PDKI et le Kurdistan.[10] Ce fut le début de la confrontation du parti et du nouvel État, qui se solda par une défaite militaire des rebelles kurdes. En 1982, Ghassemlou a tenté de renverser les religieux chiites dans une alliance avec l'ancien président iranien démis de ses fonctions Abolhassan Banisadr, mais Banisadr a refusé de rejoindre son alliance pro-kurde en raison des ambitions d'indépendance des Kurdes.[11] Le conflit armé s'est poursuivi jusqu'en 1984 au milieu de la guerre Iran-Irak (1980-1988) où les deux pays ont soutenu les rebelles armés sur le territoire de l'autre.
Après la défaite de la rébellion armée, Ghassemlou s'installe à Paris et rejoint le Conseil national de la Résistance iranienne fondé par le PDKI et d'autres forces d'opposition : les Moudjahidine du peuple islamiste-marxiste, le Front national démocratique libéral-gauchiste, la Gauche unie de petits groupements socialistes, et l'ancien président islamiste indépendant de gauche Abolhassan Bani Sadr en octobre 1981.[12]

Livres
Kurdistan et Kurde est un livre sur l'histoire des Kurdes et de leur terre écrit par Ghassemlou et publié en 1964 en slovaque, 1965 en anglais, 1967 en arabe, 1969 en polonais et 1973 en kurde.[13][14]

Assassinat et funérailles
Informations complémentaires: Liste des assassinats iraniens
En 1988, après la fin de la guerre, le gouvernement iranien a décidé de le rencontrer. Plusieurs réunions suivirent à Vienne[15], les 28 décembre, 30 décembre et 20 janvier 1989. Une autre réunion fut fixée au 13 juillet, toujours à Vienne.
La délégation de Téhéran était comme avant, à savoir Mohammed Jafar Sahraroudi et Hadji Moustafawi, sauf que cette fois il y avait aussi un troisième membre : Amir Mansur Bozorgian qui était garde du corps. Les Kurdes avaient également une délégation de trois hommes : Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, son assistant Abdullah Ghaderi Azar (un membre du Comité central du PDKI) et Fadhil Rassoul, un professeur d'université kurde irakien qui avait agi comme médiateur.
The next day, 13 July 1989, in the very room where the negotiation took place, Ghassemlou was killed by three bullets fired at very close range.[16][17] His assistant Ghaderi Azar was hit by eleven bullets and Rassoul by five. Hadji Moustafawi succeeded in escaping. Mohammad Jafar Sahraroudi received minor injuries and was taken to a hospital, questioned and allowed to go. Amir Mansur Bozorgian was released after 24 hours in police custody and took refuge in the Iranian Embassy.[18]
His deputy, Sadegh Sharafkandi, succeeded Ghassemlou as secretary-general until his assassination on 17 September 1992 in the Mykonos restaurant in Berlin, Germany. Abdullah Ghaderi Azar and Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou were buried on 20 July in Paris at Père Lachaise Cemetery.

Enquête
Selon PDKI

Fin novembre 1989, les tribunaux autrichiens ont délivré un mandat d'arrêt à l'encontre des trois représentants iraniens et le gouvernement autrichien a expressément accusé le gouvernement iranien d'être à l'origine de l'attentat contre Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou.[19]

Les trois représentants du gouvernement iranien dans les négociations avec les dirigeants kurdes sont rentrés librement en Iran. L'un d'eux n'avait jamais été détenu, l'un a été escorté par la police autrichienne à l'aéroport de Vienne neuf jours après l'assassinat, et le troisième, après une nuit d'arrestation, a passé quelques mois à l'ambassade d'Iran à Vienne avant de disparaître de L'Autriche. L'un des suspects était Mohamed Magaby, dont les manifestants kurdes à Vienne ont demandé l'arrestation et l'interdiction de voyager. Les mandats d'arrêt contre eux n'ont été délivrés qu'en novembre 1989. Les mandats n'ont jamais été exécutés. Contrairement au procès allemand de Mykonos pour l'assassinat du successeur de Ghassemlou, Sadegh Sharafkandi à Berlin, l'assassinat de Vienne n'a jamais été clarifié par aucun tribunal. Le verdict de Mykonos du 1er avril 1997 impute au gouvernement iranien de l'époque la responsabilité des meurtres de Berlin et de Vienne.[20]

Références
1. L'Assemblée d'experts de 1979 pour la rédaction de l'élection de la Constitution, The Iran Social Science Data Portal, Princeton University, archivé de l'original le 24 août 2015 , récupéré le 10 août 2015
2. Dr A. R. Ghassemlou. saradistribution.com.
3. Asso Hassan Zadeh. L'héritage d'Abdulrahman Ghassemlou, 25 ans après son assassinat. Rudaw.
4. Prunhuber, Carol (2020). Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou et la Résistance kurde en Iran. Les Kurdes au Moyen-Orient : problèmes persistants et nouvelles dynamiques.
5. Fatehi, Tara (27 septembre 2012). Dr Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou. Magazine Média.
6. Dr Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou. Parti démocratique du Kurdistan iranien. 1er septembre 2017.
7. Dr Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou. Sarah Distribution. Récupéré le 1er février 2013.
8.Carol Prunhuber (26 mai 2010). J'ai écrit le livre pour dénoncer l'assassinat par le régime iranien et la complicité des autorités autrichiennes. Chambre des lords. Archivé de l'original le 12 décembre 2013. Récupéré le 1er février 2013.
9. Prunhuber, Carol (2010). La passion et la mort de Rahman le Kurde : Dreaming Kurdistan. iUnivers. ISBN 9781440178160. Archivé de l'original le 25 août 2013. Récupéré le 1er février 2013.
10. Prague Ghassemlou. Yekta Uzunoglu. Récupéré le 4 juillet 2018.
11. Entessar, Nader (1992). Ethnonationalisme kurde. Éditeurs Lynn Rienner. p. 130–131. ISBN 978-1-55587-250-2.
12. Sreberny-Mohammadi, Annabelle; Ali Mohammadi (janvier 1987). Exils iraniens post-révolutionnaires: une étude sur l'impuissance. Trimestrielle du tiers monde. 9 (1): 108–129. 13.doi:10.1080/01436598708419964. JSTOR 3991849
14.En ligneGhassemlou, D. Abdul R. (2006). Kurdistan et Kurde (éd. kurde). Erbil : Rojhalat. p. 349.
15. Gérard Chaliand. (2020). Introduction et traduction par David Tokmatchi 40 Ans of Luttes: Abdul-Rahman Ghassemlou
16. Etats-Unis: l'assassinat par l'Iran du Dr Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou. Youtube. Archivé de l'original le 14 décembre 2021.
17. Otage - 4. Yekta Uzunoglu. Récupéré le 4 juillet 2018.
18. Dan Geist (6 août 2011). ' Un horizon plus sombre ': L'assassinat de Shapour Bakhtiar . PBS. Récupéré le 19 mai 2016.
19. La vie et la mort d'Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou (1930-1989). Archivé de l'original le 19 août 2011.
20. Profil du Dr Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou. Archivé de l'original le 11 mars 2011.
21. Roya Hakakian (4 octobre 2007). La fin de l'Iranien indispensable. Spiegel Online International. Récupéré le 1er janvier 2012.[1]
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Group: Martyrs
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Cause of death: Gun Shooting
Cities: Urumiya
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Zhina Amini
Name: Zhina/Jina
Surname: Amini
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Mother\'s name: Mozhgan
Year of Birth: 2000
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Place of birth: Saqqez
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Biography
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Kurdish nationalism: American interests and policy options
Theorising women and war in Kurdistan: A feminist and critical perspective
Theorising women and war in Kurdistan: A feminist and critical perspective.
By Nazand Begikhani, Wendelmoet Hamelink, Nerina Weiss.
JOURNAL KURDISH STUDIES, Transnational Press London, 01.05.2018. [
Theorising women and war in Kurdistan: A feminist and critical perspective
A Brief Bibliography of Kurdistan and the Kurds
Title: A Brief Bibliography of Kurdistan and the Kurds.
Author: Jawad Mella
Place of publication: London
Publisher: WKA
Release date: 2014
[1]
A Brief Bibliography of Kurdistan and the Kurds
FRITILLARIA KURDICA BULLETIN OF KURDISH STUDIES
We have pleasure to present the new issue of our e-zine Frittilaria Kurdica.Bulletin of Kurdish Studies no. 7-8. This time it is multilingual and presents articles in English, Russian and Kurdish (Sor
FRITILLARIA KURDICA BULLETIN OF KURDISH STUDIES
Kurds in Dark Times - New Perspectives on Violence and Resistance in Turkey
Title: Kurds in Dark Times - New Perspectives on Violence and Resistance in Turkey.
Authors: Ayça Alemdaroglu, Fatma Müge Göçek, Metin Atmaca.
Place of publication: USA
Publisher: Syracuse Universi
Kurds in Dark Times - New Perspectives on Violence and Resistance in Turkey
Republic of Artsakh - Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Republic of Artsakh.
Artsakh, officially the Republic of Artsakh (/ˈɑːrtsɑːx, -sæx/)[e] or the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (/nəˌɡɔːrnoʊ kærəˈbæk/), is a breakaway state in the South Caucasus whose terr
Republic of Artsakh - Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Hundreds of Iranian Sunni clerics back protesters, urge Shiite counterparts to follow
23.11.2022

In an unprecedented move that could open a new front against the regime in Tehran, hundreds of Sunni clerics have broken their silence and rallied behind the protesters, condemning the
Hundreds of Iranian Sunni clerics back protesters, urge Shiite counterparts to follow
Ali Monazzami
Ali Monazzami
an indepnedent researcher and freelance journalist.
[1]
Ali Monazzami
Ghassemlou\'s ideas of Democracy and Iranian-Kurdish relations in contemporary Iran
Title: Ghassemlou\'s ideas of Democracy and Iranian-Kurdish relations in contemporary Iran.
Author: Ali Monazzami
Place of publication: Norway
Publisher: University of Tromsø
Release date: 2011
[1
Ghassemlou\'s ideas of Democracy and Iranian-Kurdish relations in contemporary Iran
The Persian Expedition
Title: The Persian Expedition
Author: XENOPHON
Translated by: Rex Warner, Henry Graham Dakyns
Language of Translation: Greek
Place of publication: USA
Publisher: Penguin Classics
Release date: 2
The Persian Expedition
Political Function of Religion in Nationalistic Confrontations in Greater Kurdistan
Title: Political Function of Religion in Nationalistic Confrontations in Greater Kurdistan
Author: Sabah Mofidi
Place of publication: London
Publisher: TPLondon
Release date: 2022

This book sho
Political Function of Religion in Nationalistic Confrontations in Greater Kurdistan
Sabah Mofidi
Sabah Mofidi is a PhD graduate in Political Science and currently a research fellow at Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities & Political Sciences. He does research in Comparative
Sabah Mofidi
Intra-Kurdish Interactions, Democratic Autonomy, and Peacebuilding in Rojava and Bakur
By Yasin Duman on October 28, 2022
Despite the borders that divide them, the repressive policies and coercive diplomacy of the nation-states in which they live, and intra-Kurdish conflicts, Kurdish c
Intra-Kurdish Interactions, Democratic Autonomy, and Peacebuilding in Rojava and Bakur
Loqman Radpey
Loqman Radpey is a doctoral researcher at the University of Edinburgh School of Law and a research member of the Edinburgh Centre for International and Global Law (ECIGL) in Scotland. He has particula
Loqman Radpey
Kurdistan on the Sevres Centenary: How a Distinct People Became the World’s Largest Stateless Nation
Kurdistan on the Sevres Centenary: How a Distinct People Became the World’s Largest Stateless Nation.
By Loqman Radpey.
Nationalities Papers, 29.09.2021, 1–30. [1]
Kurdistan on the Sevres Centenary: How a Distinct People Became the World’s Largest Stateless Nation
Kurdistan in Tehran: What the murder of Jina Amini means for the future of Iran
Kurdistan in Tehran: What the murder of Jina Amini means for the future of Iran.
By Loqman Radpey.
Publication Name: Religion & amp; Ethics, ABC News، 27. Sep. 2022.
The brutal beating of Jina (Mah
Kurdistan in Tehran: What the murder of Jina Amini means for the future of Iran
Iran and the Caucasus
Title: Iran and the Caucasus
Publisher: Brill
Iran and the Caucasus is a peer-reviewed multi-disciplinary journal. Published in four issues per year, the Journal promotes original, innovative, and m
Iran and the Caucasus
Renewable energy strategies to overcome power shortage in Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Renewable energy strategies to overcome power shortage in Kurdistan Region of Iraq.
By: Salar S Muhy Al-Din, Duško Kuzović, Maryam Iranfar.
Publisher: Centre for Evaluation in Education and Science
Renewable energy strategies to overcome power shortage in Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Six Years After MPs’ Detention, Pro-Kurdish Parliamentary Politics is Under More Pressure Than Before
By Meghan Bodette on November 4, 2022
The arrest of nine members of parliament from the pro-Kurdish Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP) on November 4th, 2016 marked the beginning of a systematic campaign
Six Years After MPs’ Detention, Pro-Kurdish Parliamentary Politics is Under More Pressure Than Before
85 years ago, the execution of Seyit Riza
The 15 November marks the 85th anniversary of the execution of Seyit Riza by the Turkish state.
15 November marked the 85th anniversary of the execution of Seyt Riza. Commemorations have taken place
85 years ago, the execution of Seyit Riza
Iraq’s Disputed Territories
Title:Iraq’s Disputed Territories
Author: Sean Kane
Place of publication: USA
Publisher: First published
Release date: 2011.

his report could not have been conceived of, much
less written,
Iraq’s Disputed Territories
Kurdistan\'s natural gas resources may become a game-changer over the longer term
Kurdistan\'s natural gas resources may become a game-changer over the longer term.
Dr. Olgu Okumuş.
Publication Name: European Energy Review, 2013. [1]
Kurdistan\'s natural gas resources may become a game-changer over the longer term
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