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زاخو

زاخو
زاخو (بالكردية: Zaxo, زاخۆ، بسريانية ܙܟܘ) هي مدينة تقع في محافظة دهوكدهوك في الجنوب كردستان قرب الحدود الشمالية مع تركيا، ويمر عبر مدينة زاخو نهر الخابور الذي ياتي من تركيا. ويعيش في مدينة زاخو اليوم خليط من الأكراد المسلمين، وهم يشكلون غالبية سكان مدينة زاخو وبعض من المسيحيين الذين ينقسمون إلى كلدان كاثوليك وسريان أرثوذكس، وأرمن وهناك بعض القرى من الأكراد اليزيديين بالقرب من المدينة وبعض العوائل العربية المتناثرة والمتداخلة مع العشائر الكردية، وعلى العموم زاخو هي مدينة إسلامية محافظة، وفيها جامع زاخو الكبير الذي بني بعد الفتح الإسلامي للعراق عام 20 ه /641م، وفيها الكثير من المعالم الأثرية ويعد جسر دلال (العباسي) من أبرز معالم المدينة التاريخية التي لازالت شاهدة على العمارة في العصر العباسي، كما يوجد في المدينة تمثال للمناضل الكردي صالح اليوسفي. ويطل على مدينة زاخو جبل بيخير الذي تكثر حوله الروايات عن طوفان النبي نوح ومن النواحي التابعة لقضاء زاخو ناحية هيزاوا، ودركار وباتيفا.
التسمية:
اختلف المؤرخون في تحديد تاريخ معين للمدينة أو معرفة المعنى الحقيقي لاسمها ويذكر جمال بابان عند ذكر جبل زاخا طاغ بأنه منسوب إلى مدينة زاخو المدونة قديما باسم آزوخيس القديمة ويستدل من هذا من أن المدينة قد كانت موجودة بدليل كيف يطلق اسم مدينة على جبل ويستطرد في القول إن كلمة زاخ تعني القوة والعزم في اللغة الكردية ويضيف إن هناك رأي يفيد أن زاخاريوس أحد قادة زينفون قد حط عصا الترحال أثناء التراجع في موقع بلدة زاخو وسميت المدينة باسمه ثم تطور بمرور الزمن إلى تسمة زاخو المستعملة حاليا . أما المستكشف كونراد بريوسر وأثناء قدومه إلى زاخو قال : وجدنا أنفسنا أمام جزيرة زاخو الواقعة على أرض صخرية متشابهة لما رأيناه في السهل وهي آزوخيس القديمة والحقيقة فأن كلمة آزوخيز وتعني (ئاف وخيز) والتي تتكون من مقطعين (ئاف) ويعني (الماء) و(خيز) ويعني (الرمل) الموجود على الشواطئ ولايزال يستعمل نفس المصطلح من قبل الأهالي ولايزال يطلق اسم خيزي دوئافي على إحدى المناطق الشمالية من الجزرة الوسطية فأحتمال أن يكون ئازوخيز مجزوما من آفو-خيز واردا جدا وهو الاسم المثبت في الأدبيات الأوربية. والاسم المحلي الأكثر إقناعا وجود منطقة في جنوب المدينة يسمى بعدة أسماء منها خوك. ويجري فيها جدول ينساب من الوادي يسمى زيى وكانت منطقة مهمة من حيث مرور الطريق التجاري القديم طريق شرق دجلة منها، فمن المحتمل جدا ان يكون الاسم (زيى - خوك) تحول بسهولة إلى زاخو ومن الممكن أن يكون الأكثر احتمالا وواقعية خاصة وانه من المفترض أن ضريبة كانت تؤخذ من القواقل المارة من هناك تسمى خوك أو خيك. وربما يكون اسم زاخو يعني (زي خوين) أي نهر الدم نسبة إلى حادث دموي وقع في هذا المكان وأريقت فيه الدماء. هناك من يرجع أصل التسمية إلى الكلمة الآرامية السريانية ܙܟܘܬܐ زاخوثا وتعني الانتصار وتعزى هذه التسمية تقليديا إلى انتصار الأسكندر المقدوني على البارثيين في واقعة بالقرب من زاخو.
موجز لتاريخ زاخو:
يعود أول حدث تأريخي مهم حصل في المدينة إلى سنة 401 ق.م عندما تراجع عشرة آلاف من المرتزقة اليونانين إثناء تراجعهم ومرورهم عبر بوابة زاخو (دربند زاخو) والتي سميت برجعة العشرة آلاف أو حملة زينفون.. وفي صدر الإسلام توسعت المدينة جنوبا إلى محلة الحسينية الحالية وسميت ب(هسنية الخابور) وقد ذكرها الشاعر العربي أبو العلاء المعري والرحالة الفينيسي الشهير ماركو بولو وقد دمرت حسنية الخابور من قبل قبائل الغز التركية عام 1041 م وأعيد بناؤها لاحقا في الجزرة الوسطية وألتي أصبحت نواة للمدينة الحالية.أصبحت بعدها إمارة مستقلة باسم إمارة سنديا ولما ضعفت الإمارة تمكن امراء بادينان من ضمها إلى امارتهم عام 1470 م بعدها خضعت المدينة لسيطرة العثمانيين وأصبحت زاخو قضاء عام 1864. وفي سنة 1918 دخلت القوات البريطانية المدينة وانهت بشكل عملي السيطرة العثمانية عليها وبعدها تم إلحاق المدينة بالمملكة العراقية.وقد تعاقب الحكام الذين تولوا الحكم في العراق في العهدين الملكي والجمهوري من زيارة المدينة لكونها مركزا إستراتيجيا مهما للعراق.اشتهرت المدينة بكونها مركزا لليهود الناطقين بالآرامية في كردستان. حيث شكلوا الأغلبية الساحقة من سكانها حتى بدايات القرن العشرين عندما بدأت هجرتهم إلى إسرائيل. كما سكنها كل من الكلدان الآشوريين والأرمن فأصبحت مركزا دينيا هاما للكنيسة الكلدانية عند تأسيس مطرانية بها في القرن التاسع عشر
موقع زاخو:
تقع مدينة زاخو والتي تشكل مركز قضاء زاخو جنوب غرب سهل السندي الذي يشتهر بخصوبته ومنتوجاته الزراعية المختلفة على طوال فصول السنة. تتبع مدينة زاخو إداريا لمحافظة دهوك ولاتبعد زاخو عن نقطة إبراهيم الخليل الحدودية مع تركيا حوالي 10 كلم وعلى بعد 25 كلم عن الحدود العراقية السورية وهي تقع شمال مدينة دهوك (مركز محافظة دهوك)بمسافة ثلاث وخمسون كيلومترا وتبعد عن مدينة الموصل بمسافة 114 كيلومترا ويمر عبر مدينة زاخو نهر الخابور الذي ياتي من تركيا.[1]
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Sources
[1] Website | عربي | ویکبیدیا
Linked items: 93
Archaeological places
1.القشلة
2.جامع زاخو الكبير
3.جسر السعدون
4.جسر دلال
5.جسر محمد أغا
6.محلة الغجر (بالكردي پرا محلا قرچا)
Artworks
1.أردوان زاخويي
2.نصب صالح اليوسفي
Image and Description
1.پۆلیسی زاخۆ ئاهەنگ دەگێڕن بە بۆنەی ساڵوەگەڕی شۆڕشی 14ی تەمموزی 1958دا
2.تیپی هونەری زاخۆ لە ساڵی 1980 لە شارۆچکەی شەقڵاوەدا
3.چوار قوتابی قوتابخانەی پیشخابوورن ساڵی 1966
4.حاخام موشی کبای سەرۆکی جولەکەکانی زاخۆ
5.دوو ژنی کورد لە کۆڕەوە مەزنەکەی بەهاری 1991ی کوردانی باشور
6.زاخۆ، گازینۆی تەحسین تەها ئەرشیفی کرێس کۆچێرا
7.شاری دهۆک لەساڵی 1920دا
8.مامۆستا حاجی محەمەد خالید و قوتابیەکانی لە قوتابخانەی زاخۆی دووەم
9.مامۆستایانی قوتابخانەی زاخۆی یەکەم(زاخۆیا ئێکێ)
10.مەسعود بارزانی لە زاخۆ
11.وێران بوونی بەشێکی پردی دەلال لە زاخۆ لە ساڵی 1969دا
12.أكراد من زاخو 1910
Offices
1.جامعة زاخو
Places
1.زاخۆ
2.آراس
3.آزاد
4.آزادي وخابور
5.آشتي
6.آشتي (2)
7.آشي جمي
8.أفرما
9.آمد
10.اشكفت مارا
11.الشهداء (1)
12.الشهداء (2)
13.بارزان
14.بدرخان
15.بر خودان
16.برايتي
17.بهار
18.بوتان
19.بيدار
20.بيدار (2)
21.بيدار (3)
22.بيدار القديمة
23.بيمان
24.تل كبر
25.جارجرا
26.جرا
27.جوان
28.حمرين
29.خاكرك
30.خامتير
31.خبات
32.دلال
33.دم دم
34.دوازده ملان
35.ديرسم 2
36.ركافا
37.روزين
38.زاكروس
39.زاويته
40.زوزان
41.زيان
42.سبيريز
43.ستير
44.سرهلدان
45.سفين
46.سيبان
47.سيمالكا
48.شعبانية
49.شورش
50.صلاح الدين
51.صلاح الدين (1)
52.فرات
53.كاريز
54.كاوه
55.كنين
56.كوماته
57.كوندك (1)
58.كوندك (2)
59.كيسته
60.كييره
61.متين
62.مللت
63.مهاباد (زاخو)
64.مهنديك
65.ميران
66.نصارى
67.نوروز
68.هلكورد
69.هندرين
70.هيريش
71.هيزل
Publications
1.Journal of University of Zakho, A - Science
[More...]
Group: Places
Articles language: عربي
Cities: Zakho
Cities: Dahuk
Country - Province: South Kurdistan
Language - Dialect: Kurdish - Badini
Place: Town
Topography: Hillside
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Added by ( Jiwan O Ehmed ) on 18-07-2020
This article has been reviewed and released by ( Hawrê Baxewan ) on 19-07-2020
This item recently updated by ( Jiwan O Ehmed ) on: 18-07-2020
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Photo file 1.0.142 KB 18-07-2020 Jiwan O EhmedJ.O.E.

Actual
Zhina Amini
Name: Zhina/Jina
Surname: Amini
Father\'s name: Amjad Amini
Mother\'s name: Mozhgan
Year of Birth: 2000
Date of death: 16-09-2022
Place of birth: Saqqez
Place of death: Tehran

Biography
Zhina Amini, also known as Mahsa Amini, was born in 2000 in Saqqez, East Kurdistan. She was arrested by security forces during a trip to Tehran with her family for not wearing a headscarf He was injured and died after three days in hospital on 16-09-2022 in Kasra Hospital in Tehran. [1]
Zhina Amini
Nurcan Baysal
Nurcan Baysal (*1975) is a Kurdish journalist from Turkey, based Diyarbakır.In 2018 she was named Global Laureate for Human Rights Defenders at Risk by Front Line Defenders, an Irish human writer.
She was born and grew up in Diyarbakır. She graduated from Ankara University Faculty of Political Science and received a master’s degree from Bilkent University International Relations Department. After 1 year of assistantship at Bilkent University, she returned her homeland Diyarbakır and began to wo
Nurcan Baysal
HAWRE BAXEWAN\'S Interviwe
Interviwe BY: AZAD KARIMI
Before founding Kurdipedia, I started working as a digital archivist in 1995. The works in the late 1990s included the book Hawrenama for history of Kurdistan & Kurd, published in 1999 by Sardam Publishing House in Slemani

Interview
Kurdipedia General Director
Hawre Baxewan
By Azad Karimi
This introduction includes happy messages, condolences, and thanks from various people and organizations because of the social revolution of the people of Iran, which was a re
HAWRE BAXEWAN\'S Interviwe
Havin Al-Sindy
Havin Al-Sindy arbeitet in Berlin, Düsseldorf und Kurdistan. Geboren und aufgewachsen ist sie im Kurdischen Autonomiegebiet im Irak. Sie studierte Biologie und Chemie. Kunst studierte sie in der Staatlichen Akademie der Bildenden Künste Stuttgart und in der Kunstakademie Düsseldorf und schloss 2018 ihr Meisterschüler*innen Studium.
Ihre Arbeiten sind im Feld der Konzeptkunst und der Malerei anzusiedeln. In ihrem Schaffen beschäftigt sie sich aus unterschiedlichen künstlerischen und wissenschaft
Havin Al-Sindy
Shafiq Haji Khidir
He was born in 1968 in the village of Grtiik in the Roste Valley of Balakayati region.
In 1988, he received a bachelor\'s degree in law from Baghdad University.
From 1997 to 2012, he was a refugee in Europe (the Netherlands and the UK).
Besides the mother tongue; he also speaks Arabic, Dutch and English.
He has been writing since 1986. He has translated 17 books from Dutch and English and published dozens of articles and legal and political research.
His printed books:
1. Secrets of the Mos
Shafiq Haji Khidir
New Item
Theorising women and war in Kurdistan: A feminist and critical perspective
Theorising women and war in Kurdistan: A feminist and critical perspective.
By Nazand Begikhani, Wendelmoet Hamelink, Nerina Weiss.
JOURNAL KURDISH STUDIES, Transnational Press London, 01.05.2018. [
Theorising women and war in Kurdistan: A feminist and critical perspective
A Brief Bibliography of Kurdistan and the Kurds
Title: A Brief Bibliography of Kurdistan and the Kurds.
Author: Jawad Mella
Place of publication: London
Publisher: WKA
Release date: 2014
[1]
A Brief Bibliography of Kurdistan and the Kurds
FRITILLARIA KURDICA BULLETIN OF KURDISH STUDIES
We have pleasure to present the new issue of our e-zine Frittilaria Kurdica.Bulletin of Kurdish Studies no. 7-8. This time it is multilingual and presents articles in English, Russian and Kurdish (Sor
FRITILLARIA KURDICA BULLETIN OF KURDISH STUDIES
Kurds in Dark Times - New Perspectives on Violence and Resistance in Turkey
Title: Kurds in Dark Times - New Perspectives on Violence and Resistance in Turkey.
Authors: Ayça Alemdaroglu, Fatma Müge Göçek, Metin Atmaca.
Place of publication: USA
Publisher: Syracuse Universi
Kurds in Dark Times - New Perspectives on Violence and Resistance in Turkey
Republic of Artsakh - Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Republic of Artsakh.
Artsakh, officially the Republic of Artsakh (/ˈɑːrtsɑːx, -sæx/)[e] or the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (/nəˌɡɔːrnoʊ kærəˈbæk/), is a breakaway state in the South Caucasus whose terr
Republic of Artsakh - Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Hundreds of Iranian Sunni clerics back protesters, urge Shiite counterparts to follow
23.11.2022

In an unprecedented move that could open a new front against the regime in Tehran, hundreds of Sunni clerics have broken their silence and rallied behind the protesters, condemning the
Hundreds of Iranian Sunni clerics back protesters, urge Shiite counterparts to follow
Ali Monazzami
Ali Monazzami
an indepnedent researcher and freelance journalist.
[1]
Ali Monazzami
Ghassemlou\'s ideas of Democracy and Iranian-Kurdish relations in contemporary Iran
Title: Ghassemlou\'s ideas of Democracy and Iranian-Kurdish relations in contemporary Iran.
Author: Ali Monazzami
Place of publication: Norway
Publisher: University of Tromsø
Release date: 2011
[1
Ghassemlou\'s ideas of Democracy and Iranian-Kurdish relations in contemporary Iran
The Persian Expedition
Title: The Persian Expedition
Author: XENOPHON
Translated by: Rex Warner, Henry Graham Dakyns
Language of Translation: Greek
Place of publication: USA
Publisher: Penguin Classics
Release date: 2
The Persian Expedition
Political Function of Religion in Nationalistic Confrontations in Greater Kurdistan
Title: Political Function of Religion in Nationalistic Confrontations in Greater Kurdistan
Author: Sabah Mofidi
Place of publication: London
Publisher: TPLondon
Release date: 2022

This book sho
Political Function of Religion in Nationalistic Confrontations in Greater Kurdistan
Sabah Mofidi
Sabah Mofidi is a PhD graduate in Political Science and currently a research fellow at Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities & Political Sciences. He does research in Comparative
Sabah Mofidi
Intra-Kurdish Interactions, Democratic Autonomy, and Peacebuilding in Rojava and Bakur
By Yasin Duman on October 28, 2022
Despite the borders that divide them, the repressive policies and coercive diplomacy of the nation-states in which they live, and intra-Kurdish conflicts, Kurdish c
Intra-Kurdish Interactions, Democratic Autonomy, and Peacebuilding in Rojava and Bakur
Loqman Radpey
Loqman Radpey is a doctoral researcher at the University of Edinburgh School of Law and a research member of the Edinburgh Centre for International and Global Law (ECIGL) in Scotland. He has particula
Loqman Radpey
Kurdistan on the Sevres Centenary: How a Distinct People Became the World’s Largest Stateless Nation
Kurdistan on the Sevres Centenary: How a Distinct People Became the World’s Largest Stateless Nation.
By Loqman Radpey.
Nationalities Papers, 29.09.2021, 1–30. [1]
Kurdistan on the Sevres Centenary: How a Distinct People Became the World’s Largest Stateless Nation
Kurdistan in Tehran: What the murder of Jina Amini means for the future of Iran
Kurdistan in Tehran: What the murder of Jina Amini means for the future of Iran.
By Loqman Radpey.
Publication Name: Religion & amp; Ethics, ABC News، 27. Sep. 2022.
The brutal beating of Jina (Mah
Kurdistan in Tehran: What the murder of Jina Amini means for the future of Iran
Iran and the Caucasus
Title: Iran and the Caucasus
Publisher: Brill
Iran and the Caucasus is a peer-reviewed multi-disciplinary journal. Published in four issues per year, the Journal promotes original, innovative, and m
Iran and the Caucasus
Renewable energy strategies to overcome power shortage in Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Renewable energy strategies to overcome power shortage in Kurdistan Region of Iraq.
By: Salar S Muhy Al-Din, Duško Kuzović, Maryam Iranfar.
Publisher: Centre for Evaluation in Education and Science
Renewable energy strategies to overcome power shortage in Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Six Years After MPs’ Detention, Pro-Kurdish Parliamentary Politics is Under More Pressure Than Before
By Meghan Bodette on November 4, 2022
The arrest of nine members of parliament from the pro-Kurdish Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP) on November 4th, 2016 marked the beginning of a systematic campaign
Six Years After MPs’ Detention, Pro-Kurdish Parliamentary Politics is Under More Pressure Than Before
85 years ago, the execution of Seyit Riza
The 15 November marks the 85th anniversary of the execution of Seyit Riza by the Turkish state.
15 November marked the 85th anniversary of the execution of Seyt Riza. Commemorations have taken place
85 years ago, the execution of Seyit Riza
Iraq’s Disputed Territories
Title:Iraq’s Disputed Territories
Author: Sean Kane
Place of publication: USA
Publisher: First published
Release date: 2011.

his report could not have been conceived of, much
less written,
Iraq’s Disputed Territories
Kurdistan\'s natural gas resources may become a game-changer over the longer term
Kurdistan\'s natural gas resources may become a game-changer over the longer term.
Dr. Olgu Okumuş.
Publication Name: European Energy Review, 2013. [1]
Kurdistan\'s natural gas resources may become a game-changer over the longer term
Kurdish crisis could benefit Iran-Turkey-Russia energy
Kurdish crisis could benefit Iran-Turkey-Russia energy deal As markets react to Iraq\'s reclamation of Kirkuk oil fields, other countries stand ready to take advantage of opportunities being created fo
Kurdish crisis could benefit Iran-Turkey-Russia energy
The Genocide of kurds in 1988 - ALDE Seminar
ALDE Seminar
The Genocide of kurds in 1988
Organised by ALDE MEP Olle Schmidt from the Swedish Liberal Party in co-operation with the Swedish-Kurdish Gulan Association.
Anfal is an Arabic term mean
The Genocide of kurds in 1988 - ALDE Seminar
Kurdish Narratives of Identity: A Comparative Reading of Novels from Turkey and Iraq
Title: Kurdish Narratives of Identity: A Comparative Reading of Novels from Turkey and Iraq
Author: Persheng Yari,
The University of Western Ontario
Degree: Master of Arts
Program: Comparative Li
Kurdish Narratives of Identity: A Comparative Reading of Novels from Turkey and Iraq
Speech Acts in some Kurdish Proverbs and Sayings
Speech Acts in some Kurdish Proverbs and Sayings.
By: A. Prof. Dr. Suhayla H. Majeed, A. L. Kafi R. Ahmed.
University Journal of Humanities، Vol.21, No.2, 2017، (PP. 364 - 368).
College of Language
Speech Acts in some Kurdish Proverbs and Sayings
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