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🏰 Mahabad River
Mahabad River is an endorheic river in Mahabad county Iran, located at 36°46′03″N 45°42′06″E and which flows into the southern end of Lake Urmia.
The river has been crossed by the Mahabad Dam near th
🏰 Mahabad River
🏰 Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه‎, Daryâche-ye Orumiye) is an endorheic salt lake in Iran.The lake is located between the provinces of East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan in Iran, and west of the so
🏰 Lake Urmia
🏰 Urmia
Urmia or Orumiyeh[nb 1] (Persian: ارومیه‎, pronounced [oɾumiˈje] (About this soundlisten);[nb 2] Azerbaijani: اورمیهor اورمو‎, romanized: Urmiya or Urmu, Kurdish: Ûrmiyê ,ورمێ‎;Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ‎, romani
🏰 Urmia
🌏 Kingdom of Kurdistan in 1923
Kingdom of Kurdistan in 1923[1]
🌏 Kingdom of Kurdistan in 1923
🌏 Republic of Mahabad
Republic of Mahabad 1945-1946[1]
🌏 Republic of Mahabad
👫 Narmin Mustafa Awez
A Kurdish artist based in Sulaymaniyah.
She holds a MA from the College of Fine Arts, University of Sulaimany, and PHD nominate from the same institute.
Her works is mainly, painting, extending it
👫 Narmin Mustafa Awez
☂️ Hengaw Organization for Human Rights
Hengaw Organization for Human Rights was founded in October 2016 by a group of human rights activists to report about the extensive human rights violations that were occurring in the Kurdish areas in
☂️ Hengaw Organization for Human Rights
📕 Evaluation of Local Asphalt Production and Performance Grade (PG) for Kurdistan Region-Iraq
Agreen Abdoulla Azeez
Erbil - 2019
📕 Evaluation of Local Asphalt Production and Performance Grade (PG) for Kurdistan Region-Iraq
👫 Araz Ramazan Ahmad
DR. Araz Ramazan Ahmad is currently a lecturer and director of Media office at the University of Raparin. At the same time, he works as a journalist and writer since 2004, as he is a staff member of K
👫 Araz Ramazan Ahmad
📕 The stories of shilan and miran
Shilan Jamal Shahoyi
📕 The stories of shilan and miran
📕 The Death Trap as a Political Play by Saki
A Research Project Submitted to the Department of English, College of language at the University of Salahaddin-Hawler in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of B.A in Language and Li
📕 The Death Trap as a Political Play by Saki
🎵 My Sweet Pepper Land
My Sweet Pepper Land is a 2013 Kurdish-language internationally co-produced drama film directed by Huner Saleem.It was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival It was
🎵 My Sweet Pepper Land
🎵 Vodka Lemon
Vodka Lemon (Kurdish Sorani: ڤۆدکا لیمۆ) is a 2003 film directed by the Iraqi–Kurdish director Hiner Saleem.
Produced by Fabrice Guez
Written by Lei Dinety
Pauline Gouzenne
Hiner Saleem
🎵 Vodka Lemon
👫 Hiner Saleem
Huner Saleem (Kurdish: هونه‌ر سەلیم), also transliterated as Huner Salim, (born 09-03-1964), is an Iraqi–Kurdish film director. He was born in the town of Aqrah (Akre) in Iraqi Kurdistan. He left Iraq
👫 Hiner Saleem
🎵 Kilomètre Zéro
Kilomètre zéro (Sorani Kurdish: کیلۆمەتری سفر) is a 2005 film written, produced, and directed by the Kurdish director Hiner Saleem. Kilometre Zero is the first Iraqi film chosen for the official Canne
🎵 Kilomètre Zéro
☂️ Kurdistan Botanical Foundation -KBF
Kurdistan Botanical Foundation -KBF
فاوندەیشنی رووەکی کوردستان [1]
The Kurdistan Botanical Foundation (hereafter KBF) is a non-profit organization that was established by a group of botanists and en
☂️ Kurdistan Botanical Foundation -KBF
👫 Leyla Zana
Leyla Zana (born03-05-1961) is a Turkish politician of Kurdish origin who was imprisoned for ten years for her political activism, which was deemed by the Turkish courts to be against the unity of the
👫 Leyla Zana
📕 Kurdish Issues
This volume contains 13 essays, written by a group of distinguished scholars, on the most important issues facing the Kurds today. Subjects covered include politics, economics, ISIS, and number of iss
📕 Kurdish Issues
👫 Michael Gunter
Michael M. Gunter is an authority on Kurds in Turkey and Iraq and has written seven books on the Kurdish struggle. He is a board member of the Center for Eurasian Studies (AVIM).
He is frequently con
👫 Michael Gunter
📝 PKK: We know the genocidal mentality behind Sivas massacre well
The Art and Culture Committee of Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) commemorated the victims of the massacre of Sivas and said: The colonial fascist Turkish state cruelly murdered 33 people, among them art
📝 PKK: We know the genocidal mentality behind Sivas massacre well
📝 HPG: 22 Turkish soldiers killed in guerrilla actions
The Press Office of the People\'s Defense Forces (HPG) announced in a statement that at least 22 soldiers of the Turkish military have died as result of guerrilla actions in Northern and Southern Kurdi
📝 HPG: 22 Turkish soldiers killed in guerrilla actions
📕 My Memoirs On The Kurdistan Republic Of Mahabad
Translated by: Salman Ali
Revised by: Azad Hama Shareef
📕 My Memoirs On The Kurdistan Republic Of Mahabad
👩 Concerns over the fate of Zeynab Jalalian in quarantine
Jalalian is currently being held in the quarantine ward of Qarchak prison where she was transferred by the security forces after the other prisons refused to accept her.
Ali Jalalian, the father of Z
👩 Concerns over the fate of Zeynab Jalalian in quarantine
📕 Spotlights on Kurdish Folk Art
Compiled by Dr. Azad Hamad Sharif
📕 Spotlights on Kurdish Folk Art
📖 Articles
Yezidism (Alevism)
📖 Articles
Migrant crisis: The truth a...
📝 Documents
Turkey v Syria's Kurds: The...
👫 Biography
Asenath Barzani
👫 Biography
Zeynab Jalalian
👪 Balak | Group: Clan - the tribe - the sect | Articles language: 🇬🇧 English
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👪 Clan - the tribe - the sect

Balak, or Kurdish باڵەک, is a Kurdish Tribe living in the Heart of Soran Emirate. Soran is the name of an Arian clan. [1]. it is located in the the mountainous region of northern Erbil Province in Southern Kurdistan., People from the Balak area speak a language that is mixed in the Kurdish Sorani dialect and the Kurdish Kurmanji dialect. Like most Kurdish tribes, the people from the Balak tribe mainly live in mountains. Balak area starts from Rawanduz district ends in Haji Omaran Sub-district. there are two main Districts in Balak; Choman City and Rawanduz City. also five sub-districts: Warta, Smilan, Galala, Qasre and haji Omaran. its 120 Kilometers Northern Hewler City the capital of Erbil province. and bordered with Eastern Kurdistan which currently is under Iranian occupation.

Choman City is the biggest and capital of Balak Tribe nowadays. Rawanduz was the capital of Soran Mirnisheen which was a Kurdish emirate based in the geographic region of Kurdistan, specifically in what is today known as Southern Kurdistan. The emirate presumably gained its full independence from the Ottoman Empire shortly after it was captured from Safavid control, in the 1530s, but was later reincorporated into the Ottoman Empire as a semi-autonomous vassal state. After serving the empire as a semi-autonomous vassal state for the next couple of hundred years, the emirate slowly gained full independence for a second time, during the late 1700s and early 1800s, but was eventually subdued by Ottoman troops in 1835. Its capital for most of that time was the city of Rawanduz[2]
The Name
The naming of Balak tribe came from the area that they inhabit.[3] The oldest source that mentions the name of Balak Tribe is (The book of مسالك الأبصار في ممالك الأمصار, Masalik al-absar fi mamalik al-amsar) "the name Balak derives from Balakan Village"[4] in Northern Kurdistan which currently is under Turkeys occupation. Balakan means home place of Balak's. Also the Ottoman Sharif Pasha mentions in his report that some clans of Balak tribe reside in Zooka and Mashkan regions in Northern Kurdistan. and the name of Balak Tribe was Mentioned in Seyahatname by Evliya Çelebi.[5]

Balak Tribe are neighbors with Mangoor and Mamash tribes in North, Bradost Tribe in West, Khoshnaw Tribe in south and Ako tribe in East. and had good relations with those tribes. Balak was one of the main Tribe members in the union of Billbas Federation. and they took part of many wars and battles against Ottoman and Safavid Empires.
The Land
Mala Sharafis are owning the complete eastern side of Balak River and parts of west side. and has control over the tribe, Some of their towns and villages are:
1. Kosratan (home palce of Haci Agha) 2. Nawpirdan (home place of Mostafa Nawpirdani) 3. Shiwalok 4. Sakran 5. Walash (home place of Sheikh Mohammed Agha) 6. Merga (Home place of Malasharafis) 7. Galala 8. Rezhdur (Home place of Sharif Agha) 9. Shiwalok 10. Makosan (Home place of rashid Agha) 11. Saya 12. Qasre 13. Walza (Home place of Hamza Agha) 14. Soraban 15. Rosta 16. Smilan 17. Girtk 18. Goroni 19. Chomsak 20. Mawnan 21. Qalat 22. baste 23. Khazna 24. Boran 25. Dilman 26. Koyla

Shiwazuri Aghas own several villages north of Choman City; these include:
1. Rayat 2. Alana 3. Goonda Zhor 4. Shora 5. Nawanda 6. Darband

Wahab Agha of Rawandoz. Land Lord of Judian village and resort, north of Rawandoz towards Choman City.
Mirs of Dargalla. owning Dargalla and Chomrikhin and Hafiz.
Notables and Tribe Rulers[edit]
The tribe supreme chieftain is Mala Sharafi Family. Mala Sharafis are Land Lords and Tribe Leading Family. People calling them Agha which is the title given to tribal chieftains, is also given to wealthy landlords and owners of major real estates in the urban Kurdish centers, although these landlords are usually with heavy tribal relations. Leaders and notables from Mala Sharafi family:

Mala Sharaf Land lord and Chief of Balak tribe. 17th Century.

Shaikh Muhammad Agha I (Died in 1952) Balak's most powerful Leader of all times, . Established Good relation with both British Government and King of Iraq. He became Iraqi Parliament member in 1938.[6]

Shaikh Muhammad Agha II (Born 1952) Known as Shemhamed Balak. A prominent Peshmarga leader, writer and former politburo member of Kurdistan Independence Democratic Party-PASOK.[7]

Mostafa Nawpirdani Balak's most popular tribe Learder. worked for the unity of tribe and protected the tribe during the Kurdish-Arabic war in Iraq. He participated in the uprising of Kurdish people against Saddam Hussein and Killed in 1991.

Yakhi Balak Son of Shaikh Muhammad Agha II. Young Sheikh lives in United States.

Other notables:

Khanzad Miri Soran (Khanzad Princess of Soran) ruled Soran Emirate during the period 1816–1825. She was from rawandoz City Famous Kurdish female Ruler of 18th century.

Mala Muhammad Khati

Wali Ahmad Galali[8]

Ahmad Ibin Adam[9]

Sheikh Muhammad Balak Of Zinwa The owner of Suhrawardiyya Sofism order. Sheikh Muhammad Balak was an Islamic leader from the 17th century. He had over a thousand followers during the Suhrawardiyya Order. Descendents of his followers and the residents of the area visit the shrine regularly and it is considered among Kurdistan’s religious tourism highlights.[10]

Hasan Kwestani (1950-1994) Prominent Peshmarga Leader in Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. assassinated by KDP in May, 17th 1994.[11]

Azad Jundiani (1960) Politburo Member, Media Chief and Speaker of Patriotic Union of Kurdistan.[12]

Kamal Chomani Journalist and writer.
Srood Chomani - 31-05-2014
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🗺 Country - Province: ⬇️ South Kurdistan

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Yezidism (Alevism)
History/Founder: Yezidis are a Kurdish sect, is believed by some to be named after their supposed founder Yezid, the Umayyad Caliph (more probable is that Yezidi is related to the Sumerian, Ezidi, \'shining path,\' or from the Pahlavi word Yazd, \'angel.\'). The Yezidi revere the Prophet Mohammed and the Sufi mystic Adi Musafir, a descendent of the Umayyad Caliphs (Kalifs). Adi is credited with writing many of the Yezidi Holy texts and is most likely to be the originator of the faith. Islamic writin
Yezidism (Alevism)
Migrant crisis: The truth about the boy on the beach Aylan Kurdi
His lifeless body cradled in a policeman’s arms, the drowned boy on the beach has become a symbol for the suffering of Syrian refugees.
Three-year-old Alan Kurdi (his first name was initially incorrectly given as Aylan) perished along with his five-year-old brother and mother off the coast of Turkey.
His father survived and gave a heart-rending account of how he watched his family die after the flimsy dinghy that was supposed to carry them to a brighter future was swamped by rough seas.
Migrant crisis: The truth about the boy on the beach Aylan Kurdi
Turkey v Syria\'s Kurds: The short, medium and long story
The Turkish military has launched a major cross-border operation in north-eastern Syria against a Kurdish-led militia alliance allied to the United States.
The move came after US troops, who relied on the militia alliance to defeat the Islamic State (IS) group on the ground in Syria, withdrew from the border area.
We\'ve boiled down why it matters.
Why has Turkey launched an assault?
One main reason: Turkey considers the biggest militia in the Kurdish-led alliance a terrorist group. It says i
Turkey v Syria\'s Kurds: The short, medium and long story
Asenath Barzani
Asenath Barzani, Born to Samuel Ben Nathanel halevi in 1590 CE in the Kurdish city of Mosul in Southern Kurdistan. She was raised by her father Samuel who taught her Kabbalah and excused her from all daily tasks that other young girl her age usually did. She dedicated her life to studying and memorizing the Holy words of God. Asenath was quoted by Rabbi Tirzah Firestone, The Receiving; Recovering Feminine Wisdom p. 112 as saying “Never in my life did I step outside of my home. I was the daughter
Asenath Barzani
Zeynab Jalalian
Zeynab Jalalian, born in 1982, is a Kurdish activist from a small village called Deim Qeshlaq located around Maku in Eastern Azerbaijan province in Iran. She was arrested in February 2007 by the forces of Kermanshah Intelligence Bureau on charges of membership in PJAK (Party for a Free Life in Kurdistan).
She was interrogated at Intelligence Detention Centre in Kermanshah for a month while being seriously tortured both mentally and physically. She was then transferred to Kermanshah Youth Rehabi
Zeynab Jalalian

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